Network topology is the way in which various computers in a Computer Network are connected to one another. It is the physical layout or interconnection of the networked computers and peripherals along with the media being used. Some of the commonly used Network topologies are – Bus, Star, and Ring.
In a Bus topology, all the computers and peripherals on the computer network are connected with a single continuous cable that carries data to and from each one of them to all others. A coaxial cable with a T connector is used for this type of topology. This is a network with all network devices connected in series to one another. Only one device can transmit at a time.
Short Cable Length: A single communication data path connecting all PCs requires a shorts-in-length cable. The wiring layout is very simple and installation and maintenance are also easy.
Easy to extend: IT is easy to install a new PC on a network as it requires only a short cable to connect it to the working network.
If there is a problem anywhere in the cable or the T-type connectors used in the network, then the network beyond it does not work.
As all the PCs are connected with a single cable, fault detection and the process of rectification are difficult.
In Star topology, all the computers and peripherals on the computer network are connected to a central device called a hub or switch. The hub or switch controls the traffic of the network as all the computers and peripherals are connected through either of these.
Each computer is connected with a separate cable to the hub or switch, so fault detection and rectification are easy. If a cable is removed or inserted, it doesn’t affect the whole network.
Long Cable Length: The cost of using this type of topology is high as the length of the cable required is more.
Expansion is difficult: A separate cable is required to be laid from the central hub or switch for connecting a new PC.
High dependency on Hub or Switch: If hub or switch fails, then the complete network goes down.
In-Ring topology, the computers, and peripherals on the computer network are connected in the shape of a closed ring. Data travel in one direction and is passed from one computer to another.
Short Cable Length: There are fewer number connections in this topology. The cable required in this setup is of a smaller length.
Node failure causes network failure: Data in the ring passes from each of the PC in the ring. Failure of a single PC means the failure of the entire network. Unless the faulty PC is removed, the network remains down.
Reconfiguration is difficult: Extending the coverage or making modifications in the network is difficult.